The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has created an enormous challenge worldwide. Since its recognition, HIV has infected close to 70 million people, and more than 30 million have died due to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 2009, around 400,000 children aged under 15 became infected with HIV. Almost all of these infections occurred in low and middle-income countries, and more than 90% were the result of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during pregnancy, labour and delivery, or breastfeeding. Without intervention, there is a 20-45% chance that a baby born to an HIV-infected mother will become infected. Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is a key component of overall HIV prevention efforts and represents a critical opportunity for stemming the tide of the HIV epidemic. With current intervention, the risk of mother to child transmission can be reduced to less than 5%. Therefore, transmission of HIV from a pregnant woman to her infant is preventable. HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) is an important entry point for HIV prevention and for early access to treatment, care and support.