The book discusses and covers meaning, definition of sustainable development and sustainability of agriculture and livestock production system, issues of agriculture and livestock sustainability in developing countries, an overview of approaches used by different authors, data requirement and sources of data for sustainability assessment at macro and micro level, different tools of sustainability assessment viz. Total Factor Productivity, Sustainable Livestock Production Index, Sustainable Dairy Farming Index along covering all the three dimensions of sustainability viz. economic, social and environmental. The book also defines the suitable indicators to cover all the three dimensions objectively. Factors which affects the sustainability of dairy farming has also covered in the book. The policies, recommendations have discussed at the end of the book to improve the livestock sustainability.