This book consists the full study of the assessment of the implementation of the third Education Sector Development Program (ESDP III) in the primary and secondary schools in the second biggest city of Ethiopia, Dire Dawa. Ethiopia has an Education for All-oriented Education and Training Policy (ETP) in place since 1994, and the policy is converted into programmatic actions through a series of medium term Education Sector Development Programs since 1997/98 to achieve the policy’s goals. The main thrust of the program is to improve educational quality, relevance, efficiency, equity and expand access to education with special emphasis on primary education in rural and underserved areas, as well as the promotion of education for girls as a first step to achieve Universal Primary Education by 2015. In line with this, the program understudy focused on addressing educational access, quality and efficiency in the region. The study attempted to assess the process and outcomes of the implementation of the program in the year 2005/06 - 2009/10. The book includes background, literature review, research methodology, findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study.