Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) include any procedure in which oocytes and spermatozoa, or embryos are manipulated in vitro for the purpose of establishing a pregnancy. Intrauterine insemination, in which laboratory-prepared sperm are inserted into the uterine cavity through a cervical catheter, is indicated in mild-moderate male factor infertility along with a number of other diagnoses. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an ART in which sperm and oocytes are retrieved and combined outside of the body where fertilization occurs, the embryos are then transferred to the uterus. Initially developed for tubal factor infertility, IVF is now indicated in a broad range of situations and is very successful. Multiple techniques are used to enable and improve ARTs including: intracytoplasmic sperm injection, gamete intrafallopian transfer, tubal embryo transfer, embryo cryopreservation, assisted hatching, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Hopefully this book will enhance your knowledge of ARTs along with their appropriate indications and use, and that you will be able to apply this information to your professional practice.