Atmospheric aerosols play a crucial role in the Earth-atmosphere system by means of their direct and indirect impact on climate and are one of the largest uncertainties in predictions of global climate change. The book deals with the basic principles of aerosols, remote sensing and in situ based instruments for their measurement and characterization of various aerosol properties. It includes the experimental research work carried out in estimating aerosol optical depth (AOD) and mass concentration of composite and black carbon aerosols. The parameters obtained AOD, mass concentration, single scattering albedo are used as inputs to compute aerosol radiative forcing through radiative transfer models. In addition to this, a detailed analysis of results obtained from Winter Phase Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Trace Gases and Radiation Budget (W-ICARB) cruise campaign over Bay of Bengal, also presented. The measured data has been compared and validated with the satellite data products from MISR, MODIS, TOMS, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, and HYSPLIT. The articles published in the refereed journals and peer reviewed conference proceedings showed the evidence of my results obtained.