Revision with unchanged content. Attitudes toward gays and lesbians are undergoing significant changes around the world. Previous research has determined that Canadians often exhibit more tolerant attitudes toward homosexuality than Americans, yet few studies have attempted to uncover why this pattern persists. This book seeks to determine what factors account for differences in attitudes toward homosexuality among Canadians and Americans. The author re-examines the established assertion that divergent levels of religious commitment, rather than other socio-demographic, cultural and socio-structural factors, largely account for attitudinal differences between the two neighbouring nations. This study includes a review of previous social scientific research on this topic, followed by a comprehensive data analysis of attitudes toward homosexuality between Canadians and Americans from 1981 to 2000 using World Values Surveys data. Scholars and students interested in cross-national comparisons of social values will find this book particularly useful as it offers insight into the challenges to be expected in future research endeavours.