In this book, definition, development and evaluation of Autonomous Wireless Sensor Actuator Network (AWSAN) is discussed. Firstly the central and distributed systems are described. Then characteristic for autonomous system are considered. Based on the feedback model it is explained how the autonomous concept is applied in sensor actuator network. In order to develop an autonomous network a target-oriented routing algorithm is invented, called SCAR. To implement the AWSAN into automation process application, a method to find an optimal sample number for the sensor is introduced. By this method it can be answered how often the sensors should take samples from the environment. To evaluate the sensor network structures, they are simulated by a Probabilistic Wireless Network Simulator (Prowler). The networks energy consumption and its distribution over the nodes in networks, the networks sustainability, robustness, scalability are evaluated and compared. At the end a it is described to which extend the results are valid and a crossing point between the central and autonomous structures is found.