No guidelines or thorough investigations have been carried out to address all the aspects and challenges associated with the backcalculation of pavement moduli using genetic algorithms. This book is the first comprehensive work that deals with all aspects of both pavement and genetic algorithms and how to merge them. In addition, this book is the first state of the art work on the backcalculation of pavement moduli using genetic algorithms. New novel methods to study the interaction between the genetic operators and parameters and their effects on the backcalculation process were developed. The AASHTO recommended ranges of pavement moduli were modified to suit the GAs backcalculation process. A new Dynamic Parameterless Genetic Algorithm (DPGA) was developed to automate the backcalculation process. The new DPGA can be extended to many other applications such as robotics and optimizations. A new program (BackGenetic3d) was developed based on the novel MultiSmart3D program. BackGenetic3d is the first program in the world that can backcalculate the pavement moduli of pavement systems with any arbitrary number of layers, loading conditions, and loading configurations.