A large number of infectious diseases adversely affect the human health. Most of these infections are caused by bacteria. Nowadays, an alarming increase in antibiotic resistance of bacteria that cause infections are prevalent causes of disease and mortality. The present manual provides valuable information regarding the structure, types, historical background and mechanism of action of various antibiotics as well as different aspects related to antibiotic resistance by bacteria. This manuscript has been illustrated with 4 tables and 11 figures, clearly representing the effectiveness of this treatise. It will definitely prove to be helpful for the students, researchers, teachers and scientists in the field of microbiology. Moreover, the present manual will attract the attention of Biotechnologists, Pharmacists, Chemists, Policy planners, Research Institutions and Layman alike.