More than fifty years after gaining independence from former colonial powers, many African countries are still clinging to the colonial language as the sole medium of instruction in school. That situation is not without consequences for the academic performance of school children. Many African children repeat grades or dropout of school because they do not understand the curriculum which is taught in a foreign language. The present book draws insights from quantitative and qualitative data collected in Burkina Faso to make a case for the implementation of bilingual education that incorporates both the child's native language and French. It will contribute to reducing the rate of dropout and the promotion of the local culture.