Already institutionalized to a large extent globally, alternative medicine forms a link between folk medicine and modern Western medicine. There is a growing demand today for plant-based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements etc in the international market. Documentation of the indigenous knowledge through ethnobotanical studies and molecular characterization is important for the conservation and utilization of biological resources. Spondias pinnata Kurz is an important medicinal plant belonging to anacardiaceae family, commonly found in North Eastern region of India which has many ethno-medicinal uses. Streblus asper Lour is another small evergreen tree of moraceae family, abundantly found in this region of India and is known for its medicinal properties. This book contains a detailed molecular and genomic study of these two medicinal plants. Moreover the methods for analysis of medicinal plants are critically discussed which will help the researchers and students in this field.