Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] also known as black eye pea, southern pea, zipper pea, niebe and lobia is one of the most important food legumes in the semi-arid tropics covering Asia, Africa, Southern Europe and Central and Southern America. Being warm weather crop and drought tolerant, it is grown throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The cowpea seed beetle [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)] is a serious pest of cowpea grains which causes considerable damage in storage. It was found that prevalent species of bruchid in this region is Callosobruchus chinensis (L.).This pest not only causes direct damage by reducing dry weight but also causes reduction in quality of grain and seed viability converting the seed unfit for human consumption and as well as for planting. In this book recent standardized method for physical and biochemical screening of cowpea advance breeding genotypes against bruchid beetle have been discussed as well as recent advances in cowpea breeding for bruchid resistance also briefed. An effort also been made to characterize the candidate genotypes with respect to bruchid resistance or susceptibility using RAPD molecular markers.