Lutein and zeaxanthin preferentially accumulate in the macula of the eye to form macular pigment. Here they protect the retina from short wavelength blue light and oxidative stress. Low macular pigment makes the retina more vulnerable to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This book showcases research that evaluated serum and macular pigment reponses to an egg intervention in older adults. This book also describes formulation of novel lutein nanoemulsions and preclinical and clinical studies that evaluated bioavailability of these lutein nanoemulsions. It is important to explore highly bioavailable sources of lutein and zeaxanthin that could be used in randomized controlled trials for treatment of early AMD. Furthermore, recent findings of preferential uptake of lutein in the brain and association with cognitive function suggest they may be important for brain function.