An intensification of agricultural production on a global scale is necessary in order to secure the food supply for an increasing world population. As a result, more and more organic carbon is being removed from the soil leading to dramatic soil degradation and global warming. Biochar is a fine-grained and porous substance, similar in its appearance to charcoal produced by natural burning. Biochar is produced by the combustion of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions” Simply put, biochar is the carbon-rich product obtained when biomass, such as wood, manure or leaves, is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. The primary potential benefits of biochar application are carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emission reduction, and improvement in soil fertility. This book provides the most updated and comprehensive information related to production technology, potential advantages and future challenges associated with biochar.