Microbial activity can have an important impact on the durability of building materials. The harmful effects by the colonisting of micro-organism on the monuments is scientifically known as biodeterioration. Biodeterioration of ancient buildings and monuments depend upon many factors. Preservation of these monuments is very necessary. Although many studies on microorganism and deterioration have been published in recent years, books and congress proceedings focus mainly on prokaryotes and algae. Therefore, it is the aim of this book to summarize data on the fungal impact on biodeterioration processes. The aim of this work was to study the microfungi community on biodeteriorated samples originating from some historical buildings/tempels by using cultivation and microscope observations in order to evaluate the potential damage caused by fungal species. Most part of the book describes biodeterioration by fungi. This book especially emphasizes the frequency & contribution of fungi in biodeteriorated parts. The book is intended for archeologists, enginners, researchers, and students of environment science.