Locusts and grasshoppers (Acridoidea : Orthoptera) constitute an economically important group of Orthopterous pests and are well known for their destructiveness all over the world.They cause considerable damage to agricultural crops, pastures and forests. Locusts and grasshoppers have invaded green crops from the earliest days to present time. Locusts are the main pests in countries bordering deserts. They are distributed throughout the world. The importance of Acridoidea in agricultural productivity is well established.While on one hand the plant protection workers are dependent on the correct identification of pest/parasite for any success in crop management, on the other hand the ecologists working at the ecosystem level,community level or below, are solely dependent on good taxonomic information, as ecologists study population changes in different habitats or seasons for differences in community structure, or concentrate on ecological processes and taxa involved.It is essential that the basic data on living organism be accurate.It is in the light of the above statement that the book would be immense help to researcher as well as students beginning their career in Acridology.