Biodiversity conservation in African parks and protected areas is seriously threatened by the explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting activities in buffer zone communities. Several fauna species are becoming endangered and the list of extinct species is ever increasing due to the challenges posed by commercial bushmeat hunting activities. The explosion of commercial bushmeat hunting and trade in the region not only exacerbates fauna species depletion and extinction, but triggers negative ecological consequences that straddle local, national, regional and global scales. With insights from Cross River National Park, Nigeria, the study uses the DFID Sustainable Livelihoods Approach to explore and understand the forces driving commercial bushmeat hunting activities. The study reveals that commercial bushmeat hunting challenges are underpinned by rural livelihoods vulnerability context; livelihood assets; policies, institutions and processes, and livelihood strategies and outcomes. It concludes with policy recommendations and future research trajectories.