Biomass resource assessments indicate the availability of biomass for energy production. This handbook provides best practices for determination of biomass resource potentials and gives guidance for transparent presentation of results. Methods are provided for forest biomass, energy crops, agricultural residues and organic waste. For each biomass type, a distinction is made between statistical methods, spatially explicit methods, cost-supply methods and more advanced modelling methods. Furthermore, the handbook provides a detailed overview of sustainability aspects that can be implemented in future biomass resource assessments. The Biomass Resource Assessment Handbook is a product of the European ‘Biomass Energy Europe'' project, in which 16 renowned universities, institutes and companies worked on harmonisation of biomass resource assessments. The project has been supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme.