The overall objective of the present research is to facilitate an innovative system for management of Ecologically Critical Areas (ECAs) in Bangladesh that will have a significant and positive impact on the long-term viability of the country''s globally significant biodiversity and natural resources. This book aims to provide information on the values of conserving Hakaluki haor in terms of its economic, ecological and social benefits for local communities and for the nation at large. The research will also support government efforts to operationalize the ECA concept at one of the largest and most important of the country''s many inland freshwater wetlands, Hakaluki Haor. This research should create important opportunities for replication in coastal, freshwater wetland and other ecosystems throughout the country, including other sites recently nominated as ECAs. This book also proposes a bio-economic model describing and illustrating the interactions between the people, resources and economic activities.