Marine sediments are often characterized by the presence of high concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants, influencing sediment re-use and/or disposal. The use of eco-compatible strategies is promising to reduce the level of contamination. In this book important findings in the field of sediment bioremediation are reported, including a better understanding of the role of microbial communities in relation to contaminant fate, and kinetic models for contaminant biodegradation. The information given here is the result of an interdisciplinary methodological approach, based on tools of Microbial Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Process Analysis to overcome the many difficulties that are encountered when bioremediation is applied. A know-how to face with sediment bioremediation has been developed, useful to professionals working in the field of Sediment Management, researchers, students or anyone else interested in the tricky application of environmentally friendly strategies to contaminated sediments.