Global pollution is increasing due to the industrial and anthropogenic activities, resulting in contamination of various terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals, organic compounds and radionuclides. Information on nature and extent of pollution is limited from developing countries. Pakistan, like many other developing countries, has been going through a period of rapid industrial growth and contaminated land is increasingly becoming an environmental, health, economic and planning issue in Pakistan. Environmental pollution is assessed in a local textile industry along with detailed description of methods, protocols and techniques to carry out successful study of such degraded land. Microorganisms that are capable of resisting and surviving in polluted environments provide the basic knowledge for bioremediation. The utilization of microbial biomass for removal of metals from industrial waste waters and polluted waters is a well recognized method for remediation. Later the book introduces the bioremediation concepts and application using indigenous microbial strains from industrial waste for detoxification of metal ion and degradation of a xenobiotic compound.