Tannery industries are one of the most polluting industries mainly causing chromium pollution in environment. The increase in industrial activities has intensified the environmental pollution problems and the deterioration of several ecosystems with the accumulation of many pollutants, such as toxic metals. Biosorption, which utilizes various natural materials of biological origin, including bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, etc. When improperly handled and disposed of, these industrial wastes and effluents also contaminate the soil with their genotoxic compounds. Soil microflora may also convert nongenotoxic compounds into genotoxic derivatives. This book covers latest trends in the field of genotoxicity, heavy metal pollution, metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and biosorption of heavy metals.