Biotechnology is developing as one of the most challenging fields with a great future. 21st century marks the dawn of a new era with immeasurable possibilities for researchers in the field of biotechnology. This book comprises of rapid proliferation of ideas and concepts transformed into realities right from production of insulin to transgenic animals and crops, challenges in stem cell research, cancer vaccines, bio-pesticides, bio-control strategies , microbial cell factories, metabolic engineering enzyme design, nanotechnology in cancer therapy, advancements in genomics and proteomics, development of gene manipulation and tissue culture techniques which have imparted an unimaginable boost to the innovations in biotechnology and are proving to be a boon to mankind and nature. The ever increasing scientific quest has brought to light many challenges in this field and the scientific community needs to gear up with innovations which are to be transformed into viable techniques and products of use. This international conference served as a platform to assemble people from research and industry to share their ideas and expertise to successfully meet the challenges in biotechnology.