Biotechnology plays a major role in driving agricultural sustainability as a key component of modern and integrated agricultural practices. This is evident in the development and use of genetically modified (GM) and / or transgenic crop varieties with desirable nutritional and agronomic characteristics, and those that withstand both biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the use of GM crops may enhance agricultural productivity. In the same vein, the energy sector is faced with lots of challenges due to the use of fossil fuels which have been suggested to cause environmental pollution. Therefore sustainable alternatives are required; one of these is biofuel produced from food materials which has a great promise. However, the biofuel production has its own constraints which include the development of efficient systems and technologies; and also high cost of production which make the fuel not readily available. Perhaps, there is need for new effective processing technologies that are more cost effective leading to a cheaper finished product. Several research efforts using cutting-edge technologies are directed towards developing a viable biofuel, leading to energy sustainability.