In this dissertation, I address the distribution and conservation of the Amazonian avifauna at several scales. First, I look at how spatial bias in ornithological collections affects known patterns of diversity in the Amazon, showing that the region is massively under-collected and that poorly-collected areas are likely to hide small-ranged species, which are especially relevant for conservation. Second, I model the impacts of continued deforestation on the Amazonian endemic avifauna, identifying several taxa and ?bird-ecoregions? likely to face great threat in the near future, most of them associated with riverine habitats. Third, I evaluate these predictions on two threatened and endemic riverine birds from Roraima, Brazil ? Cercomacra carbonaria and Synallaxis kollari ? recommending that the first be down-listed and the second up-listed in the Red List of Threatened Species. I also explore the importance of indigenous reserves for the conservation of both species and emphasize the need for greater involvement of conservation biologists in the social issues related to their study organisms.