The book focuses on the blood pressure management in acute ischemic stroke and in elderly hypertensive patients- still unresolved issues. The pathophysiology and management of the transient elevated blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke are presented. Blood pressure lowering may have a detrimental effect. The ultrasound carotid disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring, using bedside bilateral transcranial ultrasonography, during emergency blood pressure management are recommended. Such an approach could individualize the antihypertensive treatment and improve functional outcome. Epidemiological, clinical and neuroimaging data on the relationships between hypertension and cognitive functions in elderly hypertensive persons are given. The impact of antihypertensive treatment is reviewed. Blood pressure lowering could increase the risk of cerebral hypoperfusion and cognitive impairment. Neuropsychological assessments, ultrasound carotid disease evaluation and cerebral hemodynamics monitoring during blood pressure management in elderly hypertensive patients with the aim to prevent cognitive decline are recommended. The book is written for physicians.