Body condition is the reflection of the fat reserves carried by the animal. It gives an immediate appraisal of the body state of the animal and is readily incorporated in operational decision making. It is helpful as a cheap tool for the selection of animals, to assess weight gain or loss, determine the success of various nutritional programmes and avoid the negative effects of under or over feeding animals. Hence it is essential to evaluate the body condition of dairy animals based on body conformation points to understand the present status of them and accordingly suggest the feeding and managemental practices for optimal performance in future. Keeping this in view , the research was carried out to develop new body condition score system and to evaluate the relationship between BCS and reproductive, productive and health performance of animals. The information furnished in this book is useful for academicians, postgraduate students, veterinarians, farmers and pet owners for condition scoring of their animals and for utilizing the BCS system as a good managemental tool for better performance of farm and pet animals.