The rising demand for consistent, high quality, as well as high density wood species has raised interest in different wood modification techniques. Over the last century, better technology coupled with the pursuit to use wood in progressively specialized applications has driven researchers to modify wood by enhancing certain characteristics,eliminating others, and even creating newer ones. In this book, development of wood polymer nanocomposites based on soft wood (Bombax ceiba, L.) has been explored. In addition, various literatures regarding wood chemistry, wood modification processes with special emphasis on wood polymer composites, their properties have been reviewed. The experimental part describes different preparation techniques,characterization and properties of the resultant wood polymer nanocomposites based on Bombax ceiba wood. The book demonstrates vacuum impregnation of styrene acrylonitrile co-polymer, glycidyl methacrylate into solid wood as well as incorporation of nanoclay and other metal oxide nanoparticles to improve the performance characteristics of prepared nanocomposites. Finally this book discusses the major aspects and future scopes of the present work.