The relationship between Bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in older postmenopausal women is a subject of increasing concern because of the great importance of atherosclerotic diseases in later life and the need to identify its potentially modifiable risk factors. This thesis was carried on 150 ambulant postmenopausal women apparently healthy (aging from 55 years old and above) in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. Measurement of BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck by DEXA scan and measurement of intima-media thickness of both common and internal carotid arteries by ultrasonography with assessment of plaques and the degree of stenosis (if present) were carried out. The results of this study revealed that there is a statistically significant positive relation between the presence of plaques in carotid arteries and low BMD of both lumbar spine and femur neck. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for age and duration of menopause; osteoporosis of femur neck could be used as a predictor for atherosclerotic plaques in postmenopausal women.