In recent decades, media literacy has begun to be incorporated into education curriculums in countries such as Canada, Britain and the United States. This study aims to explore some of the current debates surrounding media literacy and the theories that are being developed. It attempts to demonstrate the complex relationship between theory and practice and to review some of the curriculum documents and resources pertaining to media literacy. Through a small qualitative study with four elementary teachers I illustrate the challenges that teachers experience when developing their media literacy programs and discuss how these challenges shape their pedagogical approach. Finally, I discuss how media literacy has been implemented into Ontario classrooms after the creation of the 2006 language curriculum document. This leads to an analysis of teachers'' work and the factors that influence implementation of change.