This work has two parts one is taxonomic studies and the second is phytochemical screening. The work was carried out to study the morpho-anatomical and palynological characters in order to advance knowledge on these medicinal plants and on pharmacognostic quality control. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Preliminary phytochemical screening of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles, physical and chemical standards. Quantitative and qualitative investigation of the phytoconstituents including alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and phenols of these medicinal plants, Vateria indica L., Catharanthus roseus L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., Carum carvi L., Trachyspermum ammi L., Anethum graveolens L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Ruta graveolens L., Nigella sativa L., Commiphora mukul Hook ex Stock. And Shellac was investigated. The analysis of the ash residues of the part used of these medicinal plants was performed for their quality assurance including total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash contents.