In the last 40 years, the first goal pursued by dairy cattle community has been to increase individual production from a quantitative point of view, by high yielding dairy cows selection. This mono-aptitude criterion has caused a decline in reproductive performances worldwide. The comparative physiological study of autochthonous cattle to value "Ancient Autochthonous Biodiversity" opens up interesting prospects for livestock to comply the FAO 2050 target, as these animals are guarantors of a good milk production, excellent and typical cheese making, peculiar characteristics of rusticity, frugality, longevity and resistance to multiple diseases. Therefore they appear to be good candidates for traditional food production. The recovery of autochthonous breeds lactation and reproduction physiology could be strategic to improve knowledge and develop a more rational dairy livestock in view of reduced availability of cereals and plant proteins for livestock in the next 30 years.