This book investigates the possible relationship between the differences of the male and female brain and vocabulary learning strategies of male and female students. The study covered in this work identifies the differences between the biology of the male and female brain as well as the hormones influencing the memory and vocabulary retention. This information is applied to the vocabulary learning strategies of males and females. The relationship between the genders and their vocabulary learning strategies is studied according to the results of the study through statistical evaluation. The data were analyzed by comparing them to the literature suggesting the differences between the male and female brain characteristics. This work offers a new guide for language learners and teachers by broadening horizons in realizing their potentials in language classrooms. Based on facts on memory and recall in relation to gender characteristics, it offers new perspectives in employing vocabulary learning strategies.