Based on experiments in vitro and in vivo, this work addresses chemical and nutritional aspects of jaboticaba peel, a typical Brazilian berry. It is shown how compounds present in the jaboticaba may increase the antioxidant status in various tissues of the body, improving bowel function, and lipid profile, when consumed daily by obese animals. Based on recent studies, this work is indicated to undergraduate, graduate students, and professionals in health and biochemistry. Topics as obesity, diabetes, reactive oxygen species, bioactivity of phenolic compounds, antiproliferative action against tumor cells and antimutagenic effects of such compounds are discussed in this book. The discussion of this work mainly show the action of diet and functional foods in the prevention and treatment of metabolic and degenerative diseases, target of worldwide concern.