The importance of dairy based-food as a vehicle for the transmission of various diseases has been documented, especially in countries where hygienic standards are not strictly enforced. Contaminated dairy products may harbor a variety of microorganisms which are responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. Considering the marked importance of Brucella and Listeria organisms as food-borne pathogens and the lack of previous work in the Middle East that evaluates the microbiological quality of dairy-based food products, this study was carried to identify, molecularly characterize and assess the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Brucella and Listeria isolates recovered from a total of 164 cultured samples of Lebanese dairy-based food products (Baladi cheese, Shankleesh and Kishk). The results presented in this book seem to be alarming revealing the low quality and safety of these products in the Lebanese market. They reflect the significance and importance of this study and the need for the implementation of strict hygienic standards and regulations to reduce food-borne illnesses and control the excessive use of antimicrobials in this region.