The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovine animal, frequently used as livestock in southern Asia. Asia is the native home of the water buffalo, with 95% of the world population, with about half of the total in India and Bangladesh. It is valuable for its meat and milk, as well as the labour it performs. It is often referred to as “the living tractor of the East”, as it is relied upon for plowing and transportation in many parts of Asia including Bangladesh. Brucellosis, a zoonosis of worldwide importance, is caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucellosis in domestic water buffalo is generally caused by infection with Brucella abortus. Clinical signs in buffaloes include abortion, decreased fertility and milk production, and testicular degeneration in the bull, as a result of epididymitis - orchitis; because of this, it is considered one of the most damaging diseases to livestock and disturbing rates of productivity in buffalo herds, since prevention and control involves a high economic impact. This book illustrates the introduction, serological diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis in bufffaloes and shows a new way of developing buffalo industry.