Bollworm is the major pest in cotton plants. BT Cotton is the first genetically modified crop which contains a gene (cry1Ac) of a soil bacterium i.e. Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) that will produce a natural toxin to act against bollworm. The aim of the BT introduction is to minimize the pesticide dosages and improve the crop production to achieve agriculture growth, poverty alleviation and environmental protection. The contents of the book emphasizes on the socio-economic status of the farmers and their livelihoods and on environment with the introduction of the transgenic cotton.