Cotton, “the white gold” is an immensely important crop for the sustainable economy of India and the livelihood of Indian farming communities. At present India ranks first in global cotton area with 11.1 million hectares and second in global cotton production with 5.304 million tonnes . Much of this success owes itself to cultivation of transgenic Bt cotton which commenced in India since March 2002. Bt cotton, primarily designed to manage the bollworm menace in cotton, has been successful to a great extent, as is evident from the reduced consumption of insecticides in cotton across the country. However, several issues still need be addressed, such as managing the Bt resistance in bollworm and emergence of sucking insects as major pests. While acknowledging the contribution of the Bt technology in cotton pest management, a better integration with other integrated pest management strategies might hold the key to sustainable pest management in cotton.