In the globalization era, the difference between the development dynamics of the nations will be made by the different options in terms of budgetary policy. We will be able to say the following: tell me what budgetary policy you implement and I will tell you what your future will be. The correlation of government strategies with budgetary policies already has a history. Budgetary policies are a reliable indicator of the disposable resources from the public budget on which public authorities can rely on. In the post-accession period, Romania has to reshape its budgetary policies in order to comply with the new demands of the economy of knowledge. A new framework of analysis is necessary to point out the main variables that make budgetary policies more efficient and better coordinated. This book aims towards identifying the main challenges and advantages of Romania in terms of shaping and implementing budgetary policies in a global world.