In tropical countries, domestic buffalo production is an indispensable livestock resource to millions of smallholder farmers. However, buffaloes are considered as difficult breeder because of their inherent susceptibility to environmental stress which cause anestrus and repeat breeding, besides delayed age at first calving and delayed postpartum estrus. This monograph, presents a novel strategy to optimize overall reproductive performance and fertility response in postpartum buffaloes through use of bull-biostimulation. Biostimulation through bull exposure offers an efficient strategy to increase the number of pregnant animals during the earlier days of mating period after calving. Introduction of bulls to buffalo herd could be a rational management strategy for reducing the postpartum anestrus by enhancing reproductive function in buffaloes. The work should help to improve management approaches in these animals and should be especially valuable to the livestock farmers as well as researchers involved in studies of pheromones and behavioral and endocrine responses in conspecifics.