This study analyzes the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and efforts to prevent the proliferation of this deadly category of weapons in order to assess whether or not current initiatives are efficient in dealing with this global pandemic. The category of SALW will be defined and discussed in the second chapter of the thesis while also examining the historical trends in both SALW proliferation and in efforts to counter this proliferation. It will seek to give explanations on why this category is the category regrouping weapons that are the weapons of choice in most current conflicts. This will enable an accurate analysis of the consequences of SALW proliferation. The thesis will also trace the evolution of both international and regional agreements aiming to prevent SALW proliferation in order to evaluate whether or not the steps taken so far are efficient in dealing with the problem, and to highlight areas that can be further improved to better prevent SALW proliferation and misuse.