This book mainly focuses on how different categories of people (castes and ethnic groups)are adapting with extreme local weather events and climate variability in Nepal. Also, the book tires to access whether the major mitigation of emissions (through community forest)in the mid-hills of Nepal have supported on adaptation activities or not. From this study, it was found that adaptation and mitigation cannot go together. The establishment of community forest did not play major role in adaptation activities of local people. Thus, most of the local people were involved in non-forestry activities such as agriculture, local trade, seasonal employment and out-migration to adapt against extreme weather events and climate variability.