Survival of firms depends largely on improved performance but several factors both internal and external have culminated to influence the performance of firms. External factors include the poor macroeconomic and political environment of doing business while internal factors include poor corporate governance, lack of adequate capital and poor capital structure choice etc. Capital structures remain a strong factor driving the performance of firms; several firms had collapsed due to poor financial structure decisions. The results of the study are deemed to benefit the following primary users; external investors and shareholders who will be able to know how the capital structure of firms affects their performance and guide in making investment decisions. Professional manager would be better guided on how to achieve the company’s objectives. Lenders may find the results useful in evaluating the firms’ performance before giving loans and academicians will see new empirical evidence particularly in the finance literature emanating from an emerging economy like Nigeria.