Forests are natural carbon sink and play an important role in sequestrating the atmospheric carbon into biomass and soil. The goal of reducing carbon source and increasing carbon sink can be achieved through effective protection and conservation of carbon pools in the existing forest, and managing a forest in a sustainable way. Quantification of sequestrated carbon in different forest types with different management regimes and soil profile could be important for better planning of natural resources, and the making of good mitigation strategy for climate change effects. This book presents soil and vegetation carbon pools of different forest types in mountain forest ecosystems. It also provides the effect of altitude and aspect in carbon storage, and relationship of species diversity on carbon stock. This book is useful for development policy maker, non-governmental organization, forestry professionals as well as academicians in the field of forestry, climate change and natural resource management.