Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods, particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The drive for this has come from two disparate directions. The first is from the dentifrice industry who are keen to develop techniques that would permit caries clinical trials (CCTs) to be reduced in duration and subject numbers to permit the investigation of novel new anti-caries actives. The second is from clinicians who, armed with the therapies to remineralise early lesions are now seeking methods to reliably detect such demineralised areas and implement true preventative dentistry. This book examines novel technologies such as photothermal radiometry, thermography, terahertz imaging and the research supporting their use.