This makes several claims. It claims that Western European party systems resemble the functioning of oligopolistic markets and that such a perception reflects the perception of a growing gap between Western European voters’ demands and the party systems’ perceived offer. It also claims that the perception of a growing gap is not a mere mental construct but it is supported by statistical evidence. It also argues that the perception of a growing gap between party systems and electorates provides the best explanation for the emergence and the success of the parties of the new extreme right. If these claims are correct, then there are some conclusions that can be drawn on the basis of this manuscript:liberalism must once again be embedded, markets must be regulated, labor must be decommodified (that is protected from the market fluctuations), and the ‘safety-net’ that "embedded liberalism" had created in the postwar era for the poorer segments of society must be restored.