This is the third book of " cases in nephrology " series written by this author . Many of the patients who are admitted in hospital wards or are referred to clinics for different medical reasons , have concurrent renal problems . Nephrologists ,internists , residents or fellows are called in these situations to visit the patients . Medical consultants are faced with major challenges such as recognition of the problem,recalling relevant diagnostic and therapeutic issues , selecting the most important steps and giving useful advices for better management of the patients .Finding appropriate data among large amounts of information is a difficult and time-consuming task .The main goal of this book is to gather all of the major topics in the field of nephrology which consultant physicians may be confronted with in their every day practice . Like other books in the series , clinical issues are discussed in the form of real cases to make them more appealing.This book is a useful companion for busy clinicians who are involved in management of renal diseases .