East African farming systems are characterized by high land pressure and relatively poor soils. They may well represent the direction in which many farming systems in Africa will develop. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a key component in these systems and an important crop throughout Africa. This book aims to better understand the roles and production constraints of cassava in order to explore opportunities to improve the productivity and sustainability of smallholder farms. Farm surveys in East Africa show that general beliefs about cassava are (half)myths that hinder the potential of cassava. They also reveal that the role of cassava has changed dramatically as a consequence of land use intensification. Results from 100+ on-farm trials identify soil fertility as the principle constraint to cassava production and show that farmers can double cassava yields. A modeling approach is used to explore the impact of management changes on sustainability indicators. Its new insights in cassava, and wide range of analysis tools, make this book an important read for scientists, development and extension workers, and policy makers aiming to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers.