Rural urban migration in Ethiopia has historically been characterized by complex flows arising from a combination of root causes. The most common push factors for rural–urban migration in Ethiopia are lack of sufficient food, shortage of rural farmland, existence of landlessness and unemployment. It is evident that extreme poverty has been and continues to be key driving forces for migration. Seasonal rural-urban migration is not limited to the poor rural community members. Middle income and even ‘rich’ peasants take part in seasonal migration during agricultural as a means of maximizing income opportunities. Both young and adult men practice seasonal migration to offset their rural distress and earn income to augment their agricultural income. Migration is attributed to have both negative and positive consequences at community, household and individual levels. Migration in rural areas served as a safety net mechanism for poor individuals. Without increased food security, infrastructure, and employment opportunities, it can be anticipated that migration flows from rural to urban will be continue.