This book focuses on the intricate lipid rich cell wall which forms the first barrier for drug delivery with an emphasis on the cell surface antigenic glycolipids, the glycopeptidolipids. A detail account of their structure, biosynthetic pathway, intracellular function and their implications on biofilm formation has been provided. It highlights the changes in the cell surface of M. smegmatis at different ambience of growth. A chapter revisits the biosynthetic pathway of the glycopeptidolipids and justifies a need for a fresh perspective. The transcription apparatus and the regulation of gene expression in mycobacteria at different environmental condition and stages of growth are also discussed. The need for a detail investigation of the stationary phase induced changes in mycobacterial RNAP is stressed. The role of the mycobacterial principal like sigma factor, SigB, at the stationary phase of growth is addressed through expression proteomics. Undergraduate and graduate students investigating the lipid rich cell surface and transcription machinery, during the mycobacterial stationary phase of growth will be immensely benefited from this book.